Maret 7, 2012 § 1 Komentar
Lately, my advisor urged me to submit paper regards to my thesis research. He said that I should submit my paper on SPE (Society of Petroleum Engineering) paper. Then I said yes, I would. For the first step, I sent my abstract to him to be reviewed.
Here it is
LABORATORY STUDY : THE APPLICATION OF POLYURETHANE TO RESOLVE SAND PROBLEM IN PETROLEUM EXPLORATION
NIM : 20510019
Energy has become a tremendous concern throughout the world. Hydrocarbon fuel still becomes one of the numerous sources to afford energy demand. In fact, hydrocarbon energy just exploited less than 30 % from its total capacity. To improve its productivity, few methods have been developed both mechanic and chemical. One of mostly used method is Improved Oil Recovery (IOR). IOR has a wide method, including mechanical, chemical, and physical. For this research, sand control using resin polymer is applied as part of IOR. Sand control is conducted to increase oil productivity by handling sand problem those occur frequently on production well. Sand production occurs due to sand grains rupture from its matrix where it is bound. High pressure along oil drilling will damage rock formation results on sand production. Sand rupture occurs for unconsolidated and poorly consolidated type of rock formation. Oil containing sand grains will reduce its efficiency. Moreover, sand production increases high maintenance and production cost. To handle the sand problem, several methods have been developed comprising mechanical and chemical techniques. In terms of chemical method, a polymer resin is used for this purpose. The polymer resin strengthens a covalent bond among sand grains. Thus it will withstand towards high pressure along drilling process. Polyurethane is synthesized on this research as resin to handle the sand problem. It is synthesized from castor oil as a polyol source and 4,4-methylene bis phenyl diisocyanate (MDI) as an isocyanate compound. Reaction is conducted for one and half hour with nitrogen atmosphere and stirred continuously. This reaction produces prepolymer gel of polyurethane with a hydroxy number around 150-200 mg KOH/gram.
A rock formation is represented with un artificial core that is made to resemble rock condition in the reservoir. The artificial core then soaked into polyurethane solution with various concentrations, soaking time, and drying temperature. The influence of chain extender addition into prepolymer of polyurethane is also examined. The data obtained by investigating polyurethane performance is thus compared to commercial resin such as furfuryl alcohol and epoxy resin. The compressive strength and porosity of rock are parameters used to evaluate resin performance. Rock’s strength test is conducted using a uniaxial instrument, while porosity using porosimeter. After several test, we obtain that prepolymer of polyurethane succeed to increase rock strength from 0,7 ton to 1,4 ton after treatment by immersion in resin solution with concentration of 6 % (w/v) for two hours soaking time and drying at the ambient temperatures. This result is better than using the resin of furfuryl alcohol or epoxy with the maximum rock strength is about 1.2 ton. The increase rock strength causes the decrease on the rock porosity. The porosity of rock reduces from 33,17 % into 32,14 % when the rock was immersed in prepolymer solution of 6 % (w/v). Meanwhile by treatment using the resin of furfuryl alcohol and epoxy exhibit also porosity reduction. The addition of polyethylene glycol as a chain extender with various concentrations in prepolymer of polyurethane could increase the rock strength, and the increase concentration of PEG added in prepolymer resulting on stronger rock formation.
however this paper is not going continue due my another stuff to do 🙂
November 25, 2010 § 1 Komentar
Sand production is one of the biggest problems in oil and gas production. Sand can damage the surface and down hole facilities. Sand production simply occurs in unconsolidated formation. To overcome this constraint, mechanical and chemical method has been much developed. In this research chemical method based on polyurethane, and organosilane is used to solve sand production replacing recent polymer.
Polyurethane is synthesized by reacting polyol and diisocyanate. Polyol can be produced from castor oil those are cheap and environmental friendly. Organosilane will act as a coupling agent, which can bind with organic and inorganic materials. Hence it will enhance organosilane to bind strongly with sand grains.
In this study, polyurethane maintains stability of organosilane towards temperature and pressure expansion. Combination of organosilane and polyurethane will be injected into artificial cores to evaluate its mechanical properties with and without resin treatment. Those artificial cores resemble rock in a reservoir by utilizing data from the real field. It is synthesized to represent the real core in an oil and gas field. That core has 2:1 sand and cement ratio. Core test is conducted by using a triaxial stress instrument. Temperature will be raised until 80ºC to investigate stability of resin.
Lab test varies three adhesive material for chemical sand consolidation those are commercial epoxy, furfuryl alcohol and synthesis polymer based on polyurethane (PU)-organosilane. Result indicates that new resin system based on PU-organosilane create stronger sand grains binding thus less sand is produced without reducing too much permeability and porosity compared to others.